What is Sequence of Tense? Definition and Uses

What is Sequence of Tense?

যখন Principal clause এবং Subordinate clause নিয়ে একটি বাক্য তৈরী হয়, তখন Principal clause-এর verb-এর tense অনুসারে Subordinate clause-এর অন্তর্গত verb-এর tense হয়ে থাকে। Principal clause-এর verb-এর tense-কে অনুসরন করে যে সকল নিদির্ষ্ট নিয়ম অনুসারে Subordinate clause-এর অন্তর্গত verb-এর tense ব্যবহৃত হয়, সেসকল নিয়মকেই Sequence of Tense বলা হয়।

Rule one:

Principal clause-এর verb-এর tense-টি যদি present tense, present perfect tense বা future tense-এ হয়, এবং subordinate clause-টি যদি that দ্বারা শুরু হয়, তবে subordinate clause-এর verb-এর tense-টি প্রয়োজন অনুসারে যে কোন tense-এ লিখা যায়।

Example:

  • Rafiq says that he is hungry.
  • Rahima says that she will be happy.
  • You will know one day that dishonesty brings destruction.
  • He is saying that he is alright.

Rule two:

Principal clause-এর verb-এর tense-টি যদি past tense-এ হয়, এবং subordinate clause-টি যদি that দ্বারা শুরু হয়, তবে subordinate clause-এর verb-এর tense-টি past tense-এ হবে।

Example:

  • He told me that he was busy.
  • He asked me if I spoke English.
  • They wanted to know where I was going.

Note: কিন্তু যদি that-যুক্ত subordinate clause দ্বারা universal truth বা সার্বজনীন সত্য কোন কিছু বলা হয়, তবে that-যুক্ত clause-এর verb-এর tense-টি present indefinite tense-এ হবে।

Example:

  • The teacher says/said that the earth moves round the sun.
  • Everybody knows/knew that practice makes a man perfect.

Rule three:

দুটি ভবিষত ঘটনা বর্ননা করার জন্য Principal clause-এর verb-এর tense-টি যদি future tense-এ হয়, এবং subordinate clause-টি যদি when, until, before, after দ্বারা শুরু হয়, তবে subordinate clause-এর verb-এর tense-টি present indefinite tense-এ হবে।

Example:

  • I will give you a call when I am ready.
  • I will take admission to a medical college when I pass the HSC Examination.
  • I shall wait for you until you get back.
  • They will reach there before he comes.
  • He will study history after he finishes English.

Rule four:

দুটি অতীত ঘটনা বর্ননা করার জন্য before conjunction-এর আগে Principal clause-এর verb tense-টি past perfect tense ও after conjunction-এর আগে Principal clause-এর verb tense-টি past indefinite tense-এ হবে। Before যুক্ত subordinate clause-টি past indefinite tense ও after যুক্ত subordinate clause-টি past perfect tense-এ হবে। অর্থাৎ before conjunction-এর আগে past perfect tense ও after conjunction-এর পরে past perfect tense হবে।

Example:

  • The patient had died before the doctor came.
  • The patient died after the doctor had come.
  • I had passed the HSC Examination before I took admission in the medical college.
  • I took admission to the medical college after I had passed the HSC Examination.

Rule five:

শর্ত সূচক বাক্যের Principal clause-এর verb tense-টি Future tense-এ হলে subordinate clause-এর if-clause-টি present indefinite tense-এ হবে।

Example:

  • I shall go there if he comes.
  • If he comes, I shall go there.
  • I shall study medical science if successfully qualify the admission test.
  • If I successfully qualify the admission test, I shall study medical science.

Rule six:

শর্ত সূচক বাক্যের Principal clause-এর verb tense-টি past tense-এ হলে subordinate clause-এর if-clause-টির verb would+verb–এর এক নম্বর হবে।

Example:

  • I would go there if he came.
  • If he came, I would go there.
  • I would study medical science if I successfully qualify the admission test.
  • If I successfully qualify the admission test, I would study medical science.

Rule seven:

শর্ত সূচক বাক্যের Principal clause-এর verb tense-টি past perfect tense-এ হলে subordinate clause-এর if-clause-টির verb would have+verb–এর তিন নম্বর হবে।

Example:

  • I would have gone there if he had come.
  • If he had come, I would have gone there.
  • I would have studied medical science if I had successfully qualified the admission test.
  • If I had successfully qualified the admission test, I would have studied medical science.

Rule eight:

‘So that’ conjunction দ্বারা গঠিত কোন complex sentence-এর Principal clause-এর verb tense-টি present tense-এ হলে subordinate clause-এর verb can/may+verb–এর এক নম্বর হবে। আর যদি Principal clause-এর verb tense-টি past tense-এ হয়, তাহলে subordinate clause-এর verb could/might+verb–এর এক নম্বর হবে।

Example:

  • I am studying hard so that I can pass the examination.
  • I studied hard so that I could pass the examination.

Rezaul Karim

Hi, my name is Rezaul Karim. I am an English teacher and founder of LearnEnglishWithRezaul.com. I work with non-native English learners to help them understand English grammar from basic to intermediate. I also help them improve their conversation skills, communication ability and to reduce their accent. I hope you may like my posts on this website.

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