Voice Change (Intermediate to advance): Active Voice to Passive Voice

Transitive verb with double objects:

Voice change করতে গিয়ে অনেক সময় দেখা যাবে যে, একটি transitive verb-এর দুটি  object রয়েছে। দুটি object থাকলে একটি ব্যক্তিবাচক object বা  Indirect object  ও অপরটি বস্তুবাচক object বা Direct object থাকবে। এই অবস্থায় যে কোন একটি Object-কে Subject করে passive voice করতে হয়।

Example:

  • Active: My father teaches me English.
  • Passive: I am taught English by my father. Or: English is taught me by my father.
  • Active: He didn’t offer me the job.
  • Passive: I wasn’t offered the job by him. Or: The job wasn’t offered me by him.
  • Active: They offered you some money.
  • Passive: You were offered some money by them. Or: Some money was offered me by them.
  • Active: The teacher showed us the map.
  • Passive: We were shown the map by the teacher. Or: The map was shown us by the teacher.
  • Active: I gave you that book.
  • Passive: You were given that book by me. Or: That book was given you by me.
  • Active: The teacher told them a story.
  • Passive: They were told a story by the teacher. Or: A story was told them by the teacher.

Note: যদিও Indirect object ও Direct object-এর যে কোন একটিকে Subject করে passive sentence করা যায়, তবে প্রায় সকল ক্ষেত্রে  Indirect object-কে Subject করে passive voice করা হয়।

Infinitive phrase ও Prepositional phrase যুক্ত বাক্যকে Passive voice করা:

Active voice-এর বাক্যে অনেক সময় subject-এর পূর্বে বা object-এর পরে Infinitive phrase,  prepositional phrase বা অন্য কোন অতিরিক্ত শব্দ / শব্দগুচ্ছ থাকতে পারে। এ  সকল ক্ষেত্রে subject-এর পূর্বে Infinitive phrase, prepositional phrase বা অন্য কোন অতিরিক্ত শব্দ / শব্দগুচ্ছ থাকলে তা  subject-এর পূর্বে রেখে Passive voice করতে হয়। আর object-এর পরে Infinitive phraseঅতিরিক্ত শব্দ / শব্দগুচ্ছ prepositional phrase বা অতিরিক্ত শব্দ / শব্দগুচ্ছ  থাকলে তা সাধারণত: by-এর পূর্বে বসাতে হয়।

Example:

  • Active: Teachers told the students to wait outside.
  • Passive: The students were told to wait outside by the teachers.
  • Active: Somebody gave him a box of chocolates for his birthday.
  • Passive: He  was given a box of chocolates for his birthday by somebody.
  • Active: For his birthday somebody gave him a box of chocolate.
  • Passive: For his birthday he was given a box of chocolate by somebody.
  • Active: The Chairman must do something for this poor man.
  • Passive: Something must be done for this poor man by the Chairman.
  • Active: The told me the truth about the situation.
  • Passive: I was told the truth about the situation by them.
  • Active: They will take him to hospital tomorrow.
  • Passive: He will be taken to hospital tomorrow by them.
  • Active: Teachers should make lessons more interesting for the students.
  • Passive: Lessons should be made more interesting for the students by the teachers.
  • Active: He spilt coffee all over the tablecloth.
  • Passive: Coffee was spilt all over the tablecloth by him.
  • Active: His friends gave him a cake for his birthday.
  • Passive: A cake was given for his birthday by his friends.

Preposition যুক্ত verb-কে অর্থাৎ Phrasal verb দ্বারা গঠিত বাক্যকে  passive voice করা:

Preposition যুক্ত verb-এর পর object থাকলে, তাকে Passive voice করা যায়। Verb ও preposition  নিবিড়ভাবে যুক্ত হয়ে Phrasal verb গঠন করে ও তারা উভয়ে মিলে একটি transitive verb-এর ন্যায় কাজ করে। তাদেরকে বিচ্ছিন্ন করা যায় না। বিচ্ছিন্ন করলে –verb-টির অর্থ ঠিক থাকে না। তাই, তাদের passive voice  করা যায়। কারণ এই  Phrasal verb-এর পরই Object থাকে। অর্থাৎ এক কথায় Phrasal verb দ্বারা গঠিত বাক্যকে passive voice  করা যায়।

Example:

  • Active: Rahim laughed at the boy.
  • Passive: The boy was laughed at by the boy.
  • Active: A car ran over the dog.
  • Passive: The dog was run over by a car.
  • Active: I have sent for a doctor.
  • Passive: A doctor has been sent for by me.
  • Active: His daughter cared for his mother.
  • Passive: His mother was cared for by his daughter.
  • Active: People listened to the President’s speech with rapt attention.
  • Passive: The President’s speech was listened to with rapt attention.
  • Active: We  must look into the matter.
  • Passive: The matter must be looked into by us.
  • Active: She will look after the little boy.
  • Passive: The little boy will be looked after by her.

Interrogative sentence-কে Passive করা:

Interrogative sentence-এর  voice পরিবর্তণ করতে হলে প্রথমে sentence-টিকে  Assertive-এ পরিবর্তিত করতে হয়। তারপর নিয়ম অনুযায়ী Passive voice-এ পরিবর্তণ করতে হয়। সবশেষে subject-এর সংগে মিল রেখে subject-এর পূর্বে auxiliary verb বসাতে হয়।

Example:

  • Active: Do you learn English?
  • Passive: Is English learnt by me?
  • Active: Does he read a book?
  • Passive: Is a book read by him?
  • Active: Is he eating a banana?
  • Passive: Is a banana being eaten by him?
  • Active: Did you eat the mango?
  • Passive: Was the mango eaten by you?
  • Active: Will you help me?
  • Passive: Shall I be helped by you?
  • Active: What do you want?
  • Passive: What is wanted by you?
  • Active: Which pen do you want?
  • Passive: Which pen is wanted by you?
  • Active: Why did you do it?
  • Passive: Why was it done by you?

Imperative sentence-কে Passive করা:

Imperative sentence-এ সাধারণত: subject উহ্য থাকে। এ সকল subject-কে Passive করতে হলে Let + main verb-এর  object + be + past participle.

Example:

  • Active: Do this sum.
  • Passive: Let this be done (by you).
  • Active: Tell him a story.
  • Passive: Let a story be told him (by you).
  • Active: Take this book.
  • Passive: Let this book be taken (by you).

Appropriate preposition ব্যবহার করে sentence-কে Passive করা:

কোন কোন verb-এর পর  তাদের জন্য নির্ধারিত  preposition ব্যবহার করতে হয়।  সে সকল ক্ষেত্রে by-এর পরিবর্তে ঐ verb-এর জন্য যে preposition উপযুক্ত (appropriate) সেটি ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

Example:

  • Active: The student pleased me much.
  • Passive: I was much pleased with the student.
  • Active: I know the man.
  • Passive: The man is known to me.
  • Active: The book contains useful information.
  • Passive: Useful information is contained in the book.
  • Active: Your proposal shocked me much.
  • Passive: I was much shocked at your proposal.
  • Active: Your work satisfied me.
  • Passive: I am satisfied with your work.
  • Active: His conduct annoyed us.
  • Passive: We were annoyed at his conduct.
  • Active: His behavior surprised me.
  • Passive I was surprised at his behavior.

যে সকল Transitive verb-এর বাক্যকে Passive voice করা যায় না:

আমরা জানি একমাত্র transitive verb দ্বারা গঠিত বাক্যকে passive voice করা যায়। কিন্তু এমন কতগুলো transitive verb আছে, যেগুলোকে passive voice করা যাবে না। Verb গুলো হলো: have, lack, hold, fit, become, resemble.

Example:

  • They have a beautiful car. [passive voice করা যাবে না]।
  • The man lacks courage.  [passive voice করা যাবে না]।
  • The stadium holds 25000 people.  [passive voice করা যাবে না]।
  • The shirt does not fit him.  [passive voice করা যাবে না]।
  • This dress becomes Rahima.  [passive voice করা যাবে না]।
  • Rafiq resembles his mother.  [passive voice করা যাবে না]।

Rezaul Karim

Hi, my name is Rezaul Karim. I am an English teacher and founder of LearnEnglishWithRezaul.com. I work with non-native English learners to help them understand English grammar from basic to intermediate. I also help them improve their conversation skills, communication ability and to reduce their accent. I hope you may like my posts on this website.

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  1. Md Taj Uddin

    You are a real hero in English Grammar.

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